The Child Interstate Abortion Notification Act (CIANA) was first introduced in Congress in 2005. CIANA has two main parts. The first consists of an earlier, related measure, the Child Custody Protection Act (CCPA), which makes it a federal crime to transport a minor girl across state lines to obtain an abortion with the intent of circumventing the parental involvement law of the girl's home state. The second part requires an abortion provider in a state without a parental involvement law to provide 24 hour notice to a parent or legal guardian before performing an abortion on a girl who is a resident of a different state. CIANA provides an exception if the abortion is necessary to save the life of the minor. Whoever has committed an act of incest with the minor and transports the minor across state lines for an abortion shall be fined or imprisoned or both. A parent may obtain relief in a civil action unless the parent has committed incest with the minor.

The House approved CCPA in 1998, 1999, and 2002 with substantial majorities, but the Senate rebuffed the measure. In 2005, the House passed the newly introduced CIANA, also by a substantial majority. In 2006, the Senate for the first time passed CCPA, with a solid bipartisan vote, but Senate leadership objected to a conference with the House to resolve differences between the two bills. Later in 2006, the House passed a revised CIANA, but the Senate fell short of the 60 votes needed to approve a motion to end debate on that bill.